The first ruler of the state of the Franks. The Frankish state: the emergence
The first ruling dynasty of the Frankish statewere the Merovingians, whose ancestors are considered more mythical than real persons. Exact data about them existed a little, and this gave the right to the descendants to attribute to themselves the divine origin. One way or another, but representatives of this dynasty ensured the emergence of the state of the Franks.
Myths and legends of medieval France
As in Russia there is a source of "Storytemporary years ", some of which are disputed by later research, and in France there is an anonymous chronicle" The Book of the History of the Franks ", or" The Acts of the Frankish Kings. " As the author of the Russian chronicle, the monk is credited with the monk Nestor, and the French source was presumably composed by the Bishop of Tours, Gregory of Tours. According to this book, the genus of the Merovingians can be traced to the king of Priam, the last ruler of Troy, whose number of children numbered five dozen. One of them was Markomir, the leader of the Franks in the IV century. And his son Faramond, according to the above source, for a long time was considered the first king of the Merovingian dynasty. But later his very existence was questioned. So Faramond as the first ruler of the state of the francs disappears.
The origins of the great dynasty
His son, Chlodion Long-haired (390-447 years.), who ruled around 427-447, is also a legendary or mythical person. Although a little more is known about him. He is considered the king of Salic or Western Franks. This branch separated from other representatives of this people and lived in Toksandria (Northern Brabant, between the rivers Maas and Scheldt) from 420, then to Turne, a city not far from present-day Brussels. The nickname "Long-haired" Chlodion received because not cut from the birth of the head of hair hinted at the divine origin and belonging to the highest royal caste. He is famous for the fact that his son and successor Merovei is already a semi-legendary person, and it is believed that it was precisely because of his name that the name of the first ruling dynasty of the Frankish state of Merovingians was given. But not he - the first ruler of the state of the Franks. However, some sources attributed to him the victory over the Huns in the Katalaun fields. Attila retreated, and the Salic Franks settled permanently in Gaul.
Really existing personality
Merovei died after a ten-year reign,the throne was succeeded by his son Hilderik I. And here he is a really existing person. This is not only written, but also material evidence. In 1653, near the church of Saint-Brice, now part of the canton of North Cognac, while building the foundations for the orphanage, Hölderik's grave was found with his weapons, personal belongings and jewelery, engraved with his name, translated as a "powerful warrior". He expanded the territories of the future Frankish state, defeated the Saxons and occupied Anjou. The ruler of the salic francs was from 457 to 481. He died at about the age of 40.
The first Christian ruler
The successor to it was Clovis I (466-511) - the mosta talented and powerful king from the Merovingian dynasty. He ruled the country from 481 to 511 years. It is he who is the creator and the first ruler of the state of the Franks. He, having concluded a close alliance with the Pope, turned the Frankish state, which became the most powerful on the wreckage of the Roman Empire, into a stronghold of Catholicism. With him, the country became not only powerful, but also Christian. In 496, after destroying allemen (the ancient Germanic tribe, from the German language is translated as "all people"), Clovis receives Catholicism. He was considered the embodiment of a combination of mind and cruelty, valor and cunning. Thanks to these qualities, the state of the Franks has expanded its territory several times. His motto was the slogan: "The end justifies the means". But after his death, a powerful power disintegrated.
Ups and downs
Throughout its existence from the V to IX centuryFrancia (the first mention refers to the III century) knew the ups and downs, had great rulers and their mediocre followers. The first ruler of the state of the Franks and his last king - Clovis I and Charlemagne - were significant personalities in both French and world history. To the merits of the first king, except for a significant expansion of the territory and the adoption of the Christian religion, is the fact that he founded his residence in Paris and, having greatly strengthened the royal power, made it hereditary. The first ruler of the Frankish state, Clovis I, contributed to the writing of "Salic Truth," which is one of the earliest "Barbaric Truths." "Pravda" is a collection of unwritten norms and customs that the state authorities sanctioned. That is, it was an attempt to create a judicial and administrative apparatus. The merits of this king are great in many areas. But the question of who was the Baptist of France, there is a clear answer: the first ruler of the state of the Franks, Clovis I.
But still in the state of the francs in the periodThe early Middle Ages had a weak centralization of power. In fact, the territorial division was dominated by the communal division. The lowest but significant units, the "hundreds", were combined into pagas, or districts, which were altered Roman communities. They were no longer patrimonial, but were neighborly, or territorial (according to Engels - "marks"). Communities, in turn, united in counties, the totality of which was an early Frankish state. The rulers of the regions of the Frankish state - the counts - had no common power, they had only the local possessions of the king. The laws, their execution, tax collections were administered by the communities. But under Clovis the country is gradually beginning to be ruled by the royal court.
Strengthening the royal power
With the expansion of the state and the strengthening ofits territory the power of the supreme ruler of the people's assemblies lose their significance. The king also becomes the supreme judge. In his spare time from war, he traveled around the country to solve serious crimes. Minor violations continued to be brought to the court of the communities. Over time, the governors of the king in the provinces - graphs, strengthened their power and became real rulers, exercising general government. The first ruler of the Frankish state was crowned in 481 in the cathedral of the city of Reims. There is a legend about God's chosenness of Clovis. On the eve of the coronation the dove brought from heaven a vial full of oil, for anointing the king for the kingdom. In the same cathedral five years later, in 486, Clovis I was baptized.