On the monument "The Bronze Horseman" who is depicted? History of the monument
Monuments - the most interesting and spectaculara way to pay tribute and tribute to the historical past. They admire admirers of art, creativity and history. There are monuments that have a sonorous name, but many people do not know who is on the pedestal. For example, the monument "The Bronze Horseman" - who is depicted on it?
The monument to the brass rider is an excellent example of the personification of the spirit of history in life. You need to plunge into history a little!
"The Bronze Horseman" - who is depicted on horseback?
Many people, even by occupation not related to history, probably heard about the copper rider. But who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman", this remains an open question for the majority.
This issue is filled with many topics of forums and blogs on the Internet. Who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman"? Questions about this do not stop.
We will not weary you for long. On the monument "The Bronze Horseman" in St. Petersburg, Peter the Great is depicted. The author of the monument Falcone sought to recreate the figure of Peter in motion, so that not only the great commander and leader of the Russian people, but also the real legislator and creator of life, were seen in it.
On the head of Peter there is a wreath. It is he who emphasizes that Peter is the victor and commander. The monument for history is unique in that it has three pillars on which it holds.
Now to the question about who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman", one can safely answer - Tsar Peter the Great!
Why in St. Petersburg?
The monument to the brass rider is an important elementfor culture and architecture of Russia. You can often find the question of who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman" in Moscow? But there is no such monument in Moscow.
So, where is the monument "The Bronze Horseman",who is depicted on it, we sorted it out. And it is located not in Moscow, but in St. Petersburg. It was erected by Catherine II in honor of Peter the Great. On the pedestal you can find the inscription: "Peter the First From Catherine II of the Second Summer of 1782".
The one who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman"in St. Petersburg - an outstanding personality for the city. So Catherine thought and therefore decided to capture the creator of the city forever. Thus, the Empress decided to pay tribute not only to the city of St. Petersburg, but also to his immediate founder Peter I. By the way, that is why the "Bronze Horseman" was made in St. Petersburg in honor of the founder of the city. Its weight is eight tons, and the height is five meters.
History - the beginning
The initiative to create a monument entirelybelongs to Catherine II. On the orders of the Empress Golitsyn, Alexander Mikhailovich turned to Voltaire and Diderot for help and advice in the construction and design of such an important facility for Russia. Catherine greatly trusted Voltaire and Diderot, because their opinion was considered significant.
Etienne-Maurice Falcone - this personthey recommended to Catherine for the design and construction of the facility. And Falcone, in turn, always dreamed of creating a huge monument that will pass through the centuries and will be revered as descendants. The proposal of the Russian court pleased him and inspired him. The master comes to Russia with Marie-Anne Collot. This is his 17-year-old design assistant.
With the sculptor was signed a contract for 200 thousand livres. This is a small amount. The Russian court addressed to other notable masters of the business, but they asked the sum much more.
Later assistant Falcone was appointed Felten - professional architect, who was only to speed up the process of construction of the pedestal.
Who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman", the photo perfectly demonstrates.
"Thunder stone" is what you need!
The question arose of finding a suitable stone, on whichwould be placed a huge monument of Peter the Great. They decided to search for the stone through announcements, and a corresponding message was posted in the newspaper "St. Petersburg Vedomosti".
Appropriate stone Grigory Vishnyakov kindlywill give under the monument of Peter. It was a huge block, which he wanted to use for his own needs, but he did not even find a tool with which he could split it.
Further, the question arose about transporting a stone to Petersburg, which weighed 2500 tons. It was delivered in winter, when the soil was firmer and could withstand such a mass.
March 27, 1770, the stone was brought ashoreThe Gulf of Finland, and the operation was completed. During transportation there were many problems that threatened to disrupt the whole project. However, everything went well.
Transportation of this stone even today is absolutely unique. It was the largest stone ever moved by man!
Preparation of the monument
In 1769 a monument of plaster was demonstrated to the public. Now the figure of Peter the Great awaited casting completely.
However, the famous master and designerThe Falcone monument refused to do this work on its own. He has never faced the casting of such a huge monument. Falcone was waiting for Ersman's arrival, which was a specialist in this matter.
However, the great hopes of the sculptor on Ersman did not materialize. He was a bad specialist and could not cope with the task set before him. Falcone himself took up the casting of the monument.
The very first casting occurred in 1775. Further castings were repeated in 1776-1777. The results of the work were personally monitored by Catherine II.
The second casting was more successful than the first one. Then after the completion of Falconet in the inner part of the cloak of Peter the Great wrote "Lepil and cast Etienne Falcone, a Parisian". So the work on this magnificent monument was completed.
"The Bronze Horseman" in St. Petersburg was ready to appear before the people. There was only the question of installing a monument on the Senate Square, so that it became public property, and people could be proud of it.
"Thunder stone" was brought to Petersburg long ago. The height of the block of 11 meters was exactly what is needed to place the monument.
However, the relationship between Falcone and Catherine II was completely spoiled by this time. Falcone had no choice but to leave Petersburg for Paris.
The final installation of the monument was already occupied by FedorGordeev. This did not cause him great difficulty, and on August 7, 1782, the opening of the monument to Peter the Great took place. Falcone was never invited to the opening of his Russian brainchild. At the opening there was Catherine II herself, who gave the order to open the monument on this day!
The story of Baturin
It was the year 1812th. This was the time when the Russian army fought against the army of Napoleon. There was a high probability that the French troops would break into Petersburg and Moscow and destroy all the heritage of culture that exists in Russia.
Obsessed with these thoughts, Emperor Alexander the First ordered to take all the cultural heritage of the city from St. Petersburg. In the list of Alexander there was also a monument "The Bronze Horseman" on the Senate Square.
At this time, a certain Baturin is announced, whothen he was in the rank of a simple major. He made a personal meeting with Prince Golitsyn to tell him a dream that had haunted him for the last few days. In a dream, the major is on the Senate Square. The monument of Peter the Great turns to him and says that he should by no means be taken out of his native Petersburg. Only with him Petersburg is safe, and no one will touch it.
Surprised by such a dream Baturin, Golitsyn immediatelygoes to Alexander and tells him about the vision. Alexander was "killed on the spot", but still canceled the order to export the "Bronze Horseman" from St. Petersburg.
Thoughts of Paul
A common story is that associated with Peter the Great and the future Emperor Paul the First.
Paul walked in the evening through the streets of St. Petersburg, whenit seemed to him that someone was walking beside him. At first he took it as a game of imagination, but after he began to really feel the presence of another person.
"Paul, I am the one who takes part in you!", The figure near him said to him. Paul was amazed. He clearly saw the figure of Peter the Great in a raincoat and hat.
This meeting occurred on Senate Square. Leaving, Peter said that once Paul would see him again.
Over time, it happened. Pavel received an invitation to open a monument in St. Petersburg. On the monument "The Bronze Horseman" who is depicted? To this question Paul knew the answer for sure.
"The Bronze Horseman in Culture"
Bright monuments and monuments often find theirreflection in the stories of writers, poems of poets and drawings of famous artists. The description of the Bronze Horseman in St. Petersburg on the Senate Square was no exception.
The monument impressed prominent figures of literature and art of different times, who then displayed it in their work.
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky in the novel "Teenager"repeatedly mentions the Bronze Horseman. He experienced in his works for the future of glorious Petersburg, but did not predict his death, because the city was strongly guarded by the spirit of the famous and great founder Peter.
Mystic Danil Andreev in his "Rose of the World" also remembers the "Bronze Horseman". However, he represents Peter sitting on a dragon.
They mentioned in their works "Copperhorseman "and other writers.There are many paintings written and dedicated to this monument.Peter the First, immortalized on horseback, made a great impression on the artists.
Pushkin's Bronze Horseman
Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin is a person whosincerely admired Russian culture and its heritage. The monument of the Bronze Horseman in St. Petersburg could not leave him indifferent. The writer wrote the work "The Bronze Horseman".
The work says, as in 1824, Eugeneduring the flood, he lost his beloved. He is experiencing this grief hard. To somehow distract from the accident, he wanders around St. Petersburg.
Evgeny comes to the monument "The Bronze Horseman" andfor a moment freezes. He recalls that it was Peter the First who founded the city in the place where troubles and floods can occur. He begins to accuse Peter of his troubles and that the construction was wrong, as was the choice of the place for the construction of St. Petersburg.
Eugene begins to threaten the monument. At this time, the Bronze Horseman jumps off the pedestal and begins to run after the accuser. In reality it happens in Eugene or in a vision, he himself can not understand.
The "Bronze Horseman" was reflected not only in culture, art and literature, but also on state coins of the USSR period.
The idea of minting coins with Peter was first owned by the Bank of the USSR during the reign of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1988.
So, in 1988 the Bank of the USSR begins to mintcoins. A nominal of 5 rubles was awarded to the monument to Peter the Great in St. Petersburg on the Senate Square. The coin was heavy - 20 grams. Its circulation was 2 million 300 thousand copies.
This is the only known case with coining of coins with the participation of the monument "The Bronze Horseman".
Legends, myths and interesting facts
There are amusing myths and interesting facts related to the monument in St. Petersburg. Let's start with myths.
- There is a rumor that Peter the Great once wantedskip the Neva. When he said "All of God and mine" three times, he skipped over the Neva without problems. When he changed the phrase and said "All of my and God," then in a moment he froze in place and petrified. Since then there is a monument on the Senate Square.
- Once Peter the Great lay in his bed andit seemed to him that the Swedes were advancing on Petersburg. He jumped up, jumped on his horse and galloped to meet them. However, on his way the snake turned and stopped him on Senate Square. She did not let him jump into the water and saved Peter.
- There are myths in which Peter says that only he can really protect the city from troubles. So it was during the war of 1812-1814. And indeed, the city was not touched by the French.
- When transporting the stone under the pedestal, difficulties and contradictions arose between the workers. Often there were emergency situations. The transportation of the stone was watched all over Europe.
- Falconet originally wanted his "Copper"horseman "was without a fence, but it was still installed, at present there is no such fence, and many leave their inscriptions on the monument, spoiling it. There is a possibility that the fence will still be installed.
"Bronze Horseman" is a symbol of the northern capitalRussia. In St. Petersburg it is worth to go and see this monument with your own eyes. Now that you are in the city on the Neva, you will no longer have a question about who is depicted on the monument "The Bronze Horseman" in St. Petersburg.