Nikolay Lysenko, Ukrainian composer: biography, creativity
Nikolai Lysenko, whose biography is described inthis article - Ukrainian composer and conductor, pianist, public figure, talented teacher. All his life he collected song folklore. He did a lot for the social and cultural life of Ukraine.
Lysenko Nikolai Vitalievich - comes from an old Cossack family. His father, Vitaly Romanovich, was a colonel of the cuirassier regiment. Mother, Olga Eremeevna, the origin of the landowners Lutsenko.
Since early childhood, the primary training of Nicholas,who was born in 1842, the mother was engaged herself, together with the poet Fet. She taught Nicholas French, dancing and the right manners. And Fet taught Russian. When Nicholas was 5 years old, Olga Eremeevna discovered a son's propensity for music. For the development of talent was invited to a music teacher. Already from an early age, Nikolai was fond of poetry. Love for Ukrainian folk songs was instilled by his great-aunt and grandfather.
After home schooling is over,Nikolai began to prepare for entering the gymnasium. First he studied at Weil's boarding school, and then Gedouin. Nikolay Lysenko entered the 2 nd Kharkov gymnasium in 1855. He graduated with a silver medal in 1859.
Then I entered Kharkov University. On the natural science faculty. A year later, his parents left to live in Kiev, and Nikolai moved to Kiev University, to the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, to the Department of Natural Sciences. He graduated from the University in 1864 and a year later became a candidate of natural sciences.
After a while, in 1867, Nikolai Vitalievich continued his studies at the Leipzig Conservatory, which was the best in all of Europe. The play on the piano was taught to K. Reineke, E. Wenzel and I. Mosheles, compositions - E. Richter, theories - Paperitz. Further, Nikolai Lysenko improved in symphonic instrumentation in the conservatory of St. Petersburg from Rimsky-Korsakov.
The beginning of the creative path
In the gymnasium, he took private lessons in music. And gradually he became a famous pianist. He was often invited to balls and invited parties, on which he performed the works of Mozart, Chopin, Beethoven. He played dance compositions and improvised with Ukrainian melodies.
When Nikolai studied at Kiev University, hesought to acquire as much knowledge as possible on music. Therefore, he carefully studied the operas of such famous composers as Glinka, Wagner, etc. It was from this time on, Nikolai began to collect and harmonize Ukrainian folk songs.
At the same time Nikolay Lysenkoorganized student choirs, whichsupervised, and spoke with them in public. Studying at the Leipzig Conservatory, he realized that it is more important to create, collect and develop Ukrainian folk music, rather than copy foreign classics.
Since 1878 Nikolay became a teacher in the piano class, working at the Institute of Noble Maidens. In the 1890s. taught young people in the music schools of Tutkowski and Blumenfeld. In 1904, Nikolai Vitalievich founded his own school in Kiev (since 1913 - Lysenko). It became the first institution providing higher education at the conservatory level.
To create a school, he used the giftsfriends money, which were intended for the purchase of a summer residence and the publication of his works. The educational institution was constantly under close police control. In 1907, Nikolai Vitalievich was even arrested, but he was released the next morning.
From 1908 to 1912 years. he presided over the board of the Ukrainian Club. This society led educational activities. Organized musical and literary evenings and courses to improve the skills for teachers. In 1911, Mr .. Nikolai Vitalievich was the head of the committee, which contributed to the installation of the monument T. Shevchenko. It was Lysenko who subsequently perfected the music for the operetta Natalka Poltavka.
Lysenko wrote his first work in 1868., when he studied at the Leipzig Conservatory. It was a collection of Ukrainian songs for piano with voice. This work has a huge scientific and ethnographic value. In the same year, the second work was published - Zapovit, written for the anniversary of the death of Shevchenko.
Then followed a whole cycle called "Music to the Kobzar". It included more than 80 separate works. Their genres were different. All the works were published in seven series. The latter was published in 1901.
Nikolay Lysenko has always been in the center of culturalKiev life. Being in the leadership of the Russian Musical Society, he took an active part in many concerts that were held throughout Ukraine.
He was engaged in musical circles. And he even got permission to stage plays performed in the Ukrainian language. In 1872, Nikolai Vitalievich wrote two operetta: "Christmas Night" and "Chernomorets". Subsequently, they became the basis of national Ukrainian art, forever entering the theater repertoire.
In 1873, Lysenko published the first musicological work on Ukrainian folklore. At the same time, Nikolai Vitalievich wrote piano works and symphonic fantasy.
In St. Petersburg, he, along with V. Paskhalov arranged choral concerts. Their program included works by Lysenko, as well as Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Polish songs. It was in St. Petersburg that he wrote his first rhapsody on the Ukrainian theme, the 1 st and 2 nd polonaises, the sonata for the piano.
Returning in 1876 in Kiev, Lysenko focused on performing activities. He organized concerts, played the piano, created new choirs. Collected money from the activities he gave for public needs. It was at this time that he wrote most of his greatest works.
In 1880 Nikolai Vitalievich began to work on one of the best operas "Taras Bulba". Then came a lot of music. Separately it is worth noting the improvement of music in the operetta "Natalka Poltavka" in 1889. This work has repeatedly been subjected to numerous treatments. But only in the editorial Lysenko it turned out to be artistically full.
Nikolai Vitalievich created a separate direction -children's opera. From 1892 to 1902 years. he arranged choral tours in Ukraine. In 1904, Lysenko opened a drama school, which for many years became an important Ukrainian institution for obtaining special education.
In 1905 he, together with A. Kosich, the Bojan society-choir was founded. The creators themselves conducted it. But soon the Boyan fell apart due to political conditions and lack of material resources. Society lasted only a year.
In the last years of his life Lysenko wrote the work "Aeneid." The opera ruthlessly criticized the autocratic order and became the only example of satire in the Ukrainian musical theater.
All his life, Nikolai did not onlycreativity, but also social activities. He is one of the organizers of a peasant Sunday school. He was engaged in the preparation of the Ukrainian dictionary. Participated in the census of the Kiev population. He worked in the South-West branch of the Russian Geographical Society.
In 1868 Lysenko was married to his second cousin, Olga Aleksandrovna O'Connor. She was younger than him for 8 years. They lived in marriage for 12 years, but then dispersed, because they had no children. The official divorce did not register.
The second marriage with Lysenko was civil. At one of the concerts in Chernigov he met Lipskaya Olga Antonovna. Later, she became his civil wife. They had five children. Olga died after the birth of another child in 1900.
Death of the composer
Nikolay Lysenko, composer, died on the sixth of November1912 from a sudden heart attack. On parting with him thousands of people from all Ukrainian regions came. The funeral was held in the Vladimir Cathedral. A choir walked ahead of the funeral procession. It consisted of 1200 people, and their singing was heard even in Kiev. Lysenko was buried in the Kiev Baykovoye cemetery.