In which country did the opera appear? History of the musical genre
Opera, ballet, musicals so firmly entered ourlife that it seemed to us that they always existed. But this is not so. Some musical genres are relatively new to world culture. In this article, we will consider in which country and when the opera appeared. The word itself has Latin roots. The word "opus" means "work", "work", "composition". Since the musical genre was invented by the Florentines, the works began to be called Italian operas. When did this creation first sound, and for whose ears it was intended? Who was the author of the first opera in the world? Read about it below.
Academies and Camerata
In the Renaissance the generalfascination with ancient culture. From the attempt to "revive" the ancient heritage and was called the whole historical era. On a special scale, this fascination with antiquity has reached the "homeland" of the once powerful Roman Empire, in Italy. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, so-called academies-culturological and scientific communities began to appear everywhere, which were completely free from the influence of the Church. It would seem, what does the above information have to do with the question of which country the opera appeared in? The most direct. In academies, poets, musicians, scientists and simply rich and enlightened people were engaged in so-called secular art. And the opera, as you know, was never akin to a Benedictine chapel or a church oratorio. Cultural circles (academies and chamber cells) were sponsored by secular rulers and rich patrons of art. The main purpose of these communities was the development and promotion of the sciences and arts.
In Italy at the end of the sixteenththere were about a thousand such academies. Florence was luckier than most other cities. All the rulers of this republic considered it their duty to patronize creative people and give them generously. Therefore, the talents of all Italy gathered in Florence. In 1580 Giovanni Bardi, who had the title of Count Vernio, initiated the creation of the Camerata. And now this circle has the most direct relation to the country in which the opera appeared, because its purpose was "the revival of ancient music." How songs and melodies sounded in Ancient Rome, none of the members of the Florentine Camerata knew for sure. But the members of the cultural community were scientists and creative people: Jacopo Peri, Cristofano Malvezzi, Girolami Mei, Ottavio Rinuccini, Pietro Strozzi, Giulio Caccini, Jacopo of Korea and the father of an astronomer with a worldwide reputation Vincenzo Galilei.
In which country did the opera in music appear and what was it called?
Composers, part of the Camerata of Florence,came to the conclusion that in ancient Rome the ancient drama was declared to music. Jacopo Peri seriously decided to revive the forgotten art. As a result, a monody appeared - a new kind of solo singing, performed in a free rhythm for unpretentious accompaniment. This creation is the composer - the inventor of the genre - called drama per musica (drama through music). So, we already understood in which country the opera first appeared. And what was it called? And when was it written? It was composed by Jacopo Peri in 1598. But, unfortunately, the very first opera in history can not be auditioned right now. The score of this work, alas, has not been preserved. We only know that it was called Daphne.
In which country did Opera 2 appear?
Well, where did the firstscore? Again, in Florence. And it was created by the same author, Jacopo Peri. But this time, in co-authorship with the librettist Ottavio Rinuccini. In this opera, the members of the Florentine Camerata presented in the music and solo singing a mythological story about Orpheus and Eurydice. This work consisted of "arias", read by a recitative to the accompaniment of an ensemble of seven instruments. Opera "Eurydice" was a custom-made work. She was writing to a significant event - the marriage of a native of Florence, Maria Medici, with the King of France, Henry the Fourth. Opera was presented at a wedding celebration at the Pitti Palace on October 6th, 1600. By the way, at the same time, another musical work appeared, with the same title and the same story. The author of this opera "Eurydice" is a member of the Florentine Camerata Giulio Caccini.
The triumph of the musical genre
"Drama through music" is very pleasedmusic lovers. And the opera as a genre began to develop rapidly. The first composers continued to be Italian composers. But gradually the opera "stepped" through the Alps and began its victorious march through Europe. In each country, it acquired national traits.
In Germany, the Italian passion was replacedpatriotic pathetic. The French opera is more lyrical. After clarifying the question, in which country the opera appeared, let's think about which work of this genre first arose in Russian. It is known that already in the 1730s the singers who performed arias were listening to the imperial court. But they were foreigners, mostly from Italy. In the second half of the eighteenth century a fashion appeared for private theaters, whose troupe consisted of serfs. The first opera, the libretto of which is written in Russian, is considered a domestic comedy with arias "The Miller - a deceiver, sorcerer and matchmaker" by composer MM Sokolovsky on the text of AO Ableisimov (1779).