Constructive elements in the Russian language. The basis of the word
In Russian there are new designs,the bases of which are taken already from existing words or phrases. Each element can be assigned to a certain category. There are only two of them: non-derivatives and derivatives. There are also different kinds of word bases. Further in the article we will talk about what these components represent themselves. Also find out how to find the basis of the word. The text will give examples for better understanding.
Types of structures
In speech elements that have the property of changing, the stem of the word is a part with no ending and an affix that gives shape. For example:deserts (i)orpine, eighth (oh)orread). In unchanged elements of speech the basis is equal to the word. Examples are constructionsdreamingorhigh. There are exceptions in which the basis of the word is intermittent:
- verb forms that have postfix -s or -s, for example,learner;
- pronouns that have-either, somehow, something, an example:as-oh-then;
- compound nouns -wardrobe-a-compartment;
-complex numbers -sem-i-tenth.
Structure of the elements of speech
The basis of the word is an invariable part. This element passes its lexical meaning. What exactly is before us a part - derivative or non-derivative - can be determined by its structure. The basis of the word, which consists of a single morpheme, that is, the root, is considered non-derivative. For example:table, city. Basics, which include two or more derivational affixes, are considered to be derived. Most often it is a root that is combined with a suffix (one or pair), for example,bread-and-butter. With prefixes -flight. And also in rare cases with a prefix and a suffix in one word:homeless. All arising elements of speech can be formed from a derivative or non-derivative part.
Producing stem of the word
These parts are components of new speech elements. They have nothing to do with derivatives and non-derivative structures. An example of the presence of a producing basis is the wordstrong. The initial speech element isforce. The basis of words that change and which do notvary, differs from each other. In elements that change, this component is part with no end and suffixes that form the form. For example:sadorwindow. How is the basis of the word determined in these cases? The rule says that you need to remove the ending and form-building suffixes.
In Russian there are words that have a primary character. That is, they are not formed from any structures. The basis of such words is called non-derivative. For example:water, grass, white. The non-derivative word base has only the root. It can not be divided into morphemes. With non-derivative basis, it is possible to combine affixes (suffixes, prefixes, postfixes, etc.). They form new speech elements. So there are designs with derived bases. Examples of such words are:brother brotherly brotherly.
This is the basis of the word, which came fromAnother element as a result of the addition of some morpheme. The main component of this type is the root, but it can also include:
- suffixes. Examples:courage, masculinity, courageous;
- consoles -for-husband, great-grandson, no-friend;
- prefix and suffix in one word. For example:as a husband-and-wife, wo-husband-a-l-th.
The derived form can be divided into several morphemes, it is composed not only of the root. The derived form can be continuous and intermittent. The first type can be considered by the following examples:dream-th, fish-aortables. Examples of discontinuous produced basis are wordsmeetorcarried awayetc. It should be noted some features of these designs. Any derived part has its own generating word base. The latter is the original element. For example, we can consider the wordwater, and its derivatives:watery, andwateriness.
How correctly to combine suffixes, prefixes and postfixes
Let's start with the examples:for-do-n-t-hsiaoro-doom-a-loshi. In this case, the basis, which is calledthe affixes that form the word join, the new element or phrase is added to them. As a result, different chains of word combinations can arise. These words are mainly related to words that have a non-derivative basis. Each speech element that enters the chain is considered to be related, as well as single-root. The basics that have endings such as -y, -y, may cause some difficulty in parsing the word. Also, it may be difficult to extract the root. For example:visitors, articles, foxes. It is necessary several times to avoid mistakestilt a certain word and try to understand how much sound (j) is stored in other forms of the word. If it is absent, it means that we have the variable part of the word. In other words, the sound (j) is present at the end. If it is preserved clearly, it means that it is the basis of the word. For example:to become - j - yu,stat - j-th. In the case of morphological analysis of the word, the stem must be designated by a square line from the bottom.This is applicable in the case of a written method. In electronic printed versions, the base is allocated with ordinary square brackets. This is due to the fact that there is no necessary button on the computer keyboard. All these elementary rules are studied in school, they are necessary for any educated person.